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JHHS Library: Citing Sources

Introduction to Citations

 "Citation: A (Very) Brief Introduction" by North Carolina State University Library, 2014

Annotated Bibliography

"What's an Annotated Bibliography?" by Brock University Library, 2013

"How to Create and Annotated Bibliography (MLA)" by James Flaskamp, 2019

Why Do You Need to Cite?

The most important reason for citing your sources is honesty (i.e,. not plagiarizing). Citing is a sign of respect towards other writers, researchers, and creators.

Part of your job as a writer and researcher is to analyze, organize, and rewrite the information in your own words to reflect your point of view and your thinking. Moreover, the context for your paper is different from the context of your sources; you cannot simply copy sentences from your source to your paper. Using only one source for several paragraphs in a row or copying headers directly from sources is a sign that you are not thinking about your topic deeply enough.

Citing the sources of your information gives more credibility to your writing. It shows that you have done your research, and know the prominent theories and authors in the field. Furthermore, it shows that you know how to write a research paper, that you have learned (or are learning) the conventions of the academic world, that you are on your way to becoming a credible colleague to your teachers and other researchers. 

Another important reason to cite your sources is to enable others to find the same information. Interested readers might want to follow your argument themselves or to build on your ideas on their own.

Consequences to plagiarism in school and academic setting vary from failing the assignment or the whole class to being dismissed from the institution.

The following always need the source information listed:

  • quotations, opinions, and predictions (whether directly quoted or paraphrased)
  • statistics derived by the original author.
  • visuals (=charts, photos, other images)
  • another author’s theories
  • case studies
  • another author’s direct experimental methods or results
  • another author’s specialized research procedures or findings
Source: Style for Students Online by Joe Schall, Penn State University.

Note that any audio sources you use in presentations must also be cited.

Read more at Style for Students Online by Joe Schall, Penn State University. The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) has excellent writing and citing resources.

NoodleTools: Citation and Research Tool

NoodleTools can help you create properly formatted citations. Login with your TCSD Google account.


* High school student researchers should use the ADVANCED level in NoodleTools. *

Citation Styles

There are several different citation styles including:

  • MLA (Modern Language Association)
  • APA (American Psychological Association)
  • Chicago (CMS, CMOS; Chicago Manual of Style)

At TCSD, the most commonly used citation style is MLA.